III Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
РАЗВИТИЕ ТУРИЗМА В КРЫМУ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ИННОВАЦИОННОГО ОПЫТА ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ
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During my vacation in Britain (Scotland) I took part in the zip-line and got unforgettable emotions. The zip line is an entertainment attraction in the field of active tourism in mountainous terrain. Everyone can test their physical strength and get the adrenaline. Currently active tourism industry is developing very fast. This kind of recreation is attractive for tourists. Of course, tourism is a good thing but only few people can afford a tour to Great Britain. That is why I decided to explore international tourism of Great Britain and use its progressive experience in the area of this country, in the Crimea.
Crimea is a leading tourist region of Russia. The main value of tourism in Crimea is determined by geographic, beach, cultural, historical and archaeological resources, mineral water and mud. The diversity of the region can and should be used for the development of the tourism potential and profit that will improve the economic situation in Crimea . The problem is that Crimea is rich in everything that attracts the modern traveler, but this enormous potential is used poorly. The number of tourist routes is limited, despite the variety of natural objects.
The theme of the research is relevant, because tourism is a part of most people lives and brings great pleasure for adults as well as children. Tourism have many behaviors: contribution to human physical and mental development, preservation of cultural values. Tourism is a factor of effective organization of rest and recovery life potential of human so important in the upbringing of future generations in society. Tourism industry is also an important resource for stabilization and accelerated development of the peninsula's economy, enhancing its socio-economic level . After the return of the Crimea into the structure of Russia, it is the main purpose for the region. That is why the results of the study will be important for the economy of the Russian Federation.
Improving the quality of tourist services in the Crimea, developing material and technical structure of resorts, modernization of transport infrastructure in the peninsula – these problems are being solved at the government level . The Crimea region will be one of the most attractive places in the World Tourism  if we orient on international new trends. Thus, the theme - innovation development of international tourism in the Crimea is the most interesting and currently relevant for peninsula as well as for Russia, that is why I have chosen it.
Our century is a century of innovation. The term "innovation" comes from the English word, which means "introduction of innovations". Innovation is a trans-formation in various fields, based on new ideas, a successful exploitation, implemen-tation. Especially it relates to innovations, from which we expect the efficiency in implementation. In the global tourism experiences there are innovations that work effectively for the country. This new direction of tourism activities is looking at the modern tourist preferences, but they are still new and unconventional for the Crimea.
I researched them while having Great Britain experience as an example.
Recent statistics have shown: over the past 4 years, the flow of foreign tourists visiting the UK, has risen by 24%  which enables to create new jobs, and helps to solve the problem of unemployment. This suggests the importance of the tourism sector to the UK economy. It enables the country to hold the fifth place in the top of the country's earnings from tourism after the United States, Spain, Italy and France.
Thus, the rationale for selectedtheme is that the tourist industry in the UK has high services quality and is supported by a great variety of tourist routes . In this context, it is logical to study and extend international experience in the development of tourism in the Crimea.
Subject of research: the British experience in the development of tourism in the peninsula of Crimea.
The purpose of the research: development of innovative tourist route "The Graduate" in the Crimean peninsula. To address this goal, the following objectives have been proposed:
During the research we used such scientific exploration methods as: scientific-methodical literature, Internet resources, modeling, comparison, survey. The survey showed the result of the youth in leisure travel preferences. It was conducted by way of contact with foreigners through communication in the Internet. According to the survey, it has revealed preferences of Russians and foreigners in tourism, identified attractiveness of recreation in the Crimea.
The base of the analytical study: researching sources of tourism information, statistics data and facts of development of the tourist industry in Russia and Great Britain as well as the survey results. To achieve the objective I have collected information about tourism in Britain and the Crimea and analyzed the statistics data. To compare the structure, the content of tourists programs and routes in Britain and the Crimea: - I have created the maps of tourism in the UK and the Crimea.
- I have mapped the clubs of active tourism and centers for tourism.
Finding solutions to the problems in the Crimea and applying innovations in tourism is a theme of a high demand for today. However, until now, it requires research and proposals of modern routes to attract tourists. This work will reveal the theme of the tourism business in the Crimea, and will include my own proposals to use the innovative tourism experience of UK for Russia.
We have analyzed information about tourism in the UK and the Crimea. The comparative analysis of the structure and content of tourist tours and routes in the UK and in the Crimean peninsula has identified:
These studies have suggested that it is necessary to modernize tourism of the Crimea according the innovative principles, international experience. In the course of the analysis factors that hinder the development of tourism in the Crimea have been identified:
Main factors of development of Crimean tourist industry are:
All these factors have been taken into account in the compiling a questionnaire, and a survey was conducted in order to identify the demand for tourist services. I have designed a questionnaire and conducted a sociological survey to identify the demand for tourist services. It consists of 5 questions. According to the results, I have developed an innovative program of the tourist route "Тhe Graduate". The program is full of excursions and particularly active components of unconventional rest: paintball, horse riding, motor-sailing yacht, diving, paragliding, participate in the zip line. I offered this seven-day tour to my classmates as a memorable and healthy holiday in the end of the 11th class. A survey on the tour has confirmed interest in it (Chapter 3, § 8).
Thus, this work will have a particular implementation in practice, and this is practical value of my research. The scientific and practical significance of the study lies in the fact that the proposal can be used by travel agencies as a base for the further development of effective program to attract tourist flows in the Crimea, based on the principles of using the innovation of international tourism. Novelty and relevance of the work lies in the fact that the important factors of the
modern world tourism have been taken into account in the research and practical application of its results. The factors are: a new type of consumer, the variability of consumer character, popularity of extreme sports (Chapter 2, § 5). During the preparations of tour and its route a feedback from clients has been received, and I find it necessary to investigate clients through a marketing research. People are becoming more selective in their choices and value quality and content of the services.
It is important to take into account such indicators as: changes in costumer's behavior, income level, education, fashion, lifestyle. It is necessary to offer something new in tourism, since customer from year to year is becoming more selective.
The novelty of the research: the necessity for flexible response to requests from tourists to use the most modern achievements of world science and practice in the field of tourism.
Everyone wants to have interesting and enjoyable vacation. But if we develop tourism in the Crimea, apart from just a possibility for a good vacation, we can have a chance to raise the country's economy, and bring ourselves to the level of the top leading tourism countries in the world.
Chapter 1. PREPARATIONS FOR RESEARCH
§ 1. Tourism
Tourist business - type of business activity for the manufacture of products and services on the tourist market for profit. Tourism development leads to creation of new jobs and increase the income of the local budget. Tourism is a form of recreation, through excursions, trekking, sport games, etc., in the broad sense is the economy. Finally, tourism is the world of business that satisfies the necessities and demands of tourists, and brings considerable income to the State .
In the recent years, we have seen the increasing of importance of tourism in the modern society. This is supported by growth in incomes, increasing free time, the increasing openness of regions and other factors.
Tourism is a leisure activity. Since ancient times, human curiosity led humans to travel without any particular purpose. Today tourism is actively growing. People travel with educational purposes, check their sports training and get the experience of adrenaline. Tourism has begun to play such a big role in society that has evolved into a unique large-scale global industry, and tourism resources are becoming an essential part of the national wealth in many countries.
Currently, tourism is one of the factors increasing the quality of life of the population. Travelling and tourism today is one of the most significant industry in the world. All countries know about the profitability of international tourism. Annually over the next few years there will be about 600-700 million  travelers. The annual profit from tourism will be about one trillion dollars. Big money means that tourism has become a big business. In fact, for the economies of many countries, tourism is so important that it unfolded fierce competition between them. United Kingdom also wants to attract tourists from different countries like United States and Canada.
§ 2. Tourism in the UK. Statistical research data on tourism
United Kingdom is the birthplace of modern tourism as a form of cultural activities.
The unique culture and heritage of the country attract large numbers of tourists, whose spending bring economy 4.5 billion pounds per year, which is equivalent to the fourth part of all expenses of foreign tourists, as well as the support of over 100 thousand jobs across the UK .
According to sociological research, in our time, three-quarters of the UK population actively spends their vacation outside the residence, a large part of the country (around 25 million). The main stream of tourists sents from the central areas to the areas of resorts to the South-East of England. Around 15% of the tourists follow in the Highlands of Scotland and Wales, 8%-on the banks of rivers and lakes in different parts of the country.
The Scottish Highlands are favorable for the development of sports tourism.
There are over 30 thousand boaters, and 2 million people are members of the Sailing Association . Other popular sports are fishing, hunting and horseback riding. In wintertime ski lovers arrive to England. Many people come to rest in the Scottish national parks.
British people visit many sightings, with which Britain endowed: ancient monuments, medieval castles, museums.
At the beginning of the 60s over 2 million overseas visitors came to the Britain annually. In modern time the number of tourists visiting this country has increased in 10 times – over 20 million people a year. It helps create jobs and solve the problem of unemployed. Over 1 million jobs were created in the tourism industry of the country from 2013 to 2015 .These data show the important role of this sector in the British economy.
Tourism contributes 4-5 % gross domestic product (GDP) and has become the major source of foreign exchange earnings . 1,5 million people work in the British tourism industry (more than 6 per cent of the working population).
Thus, according to the statistical data, further sustainable development of tourist interest to the UK has a lot of prospects.
§ 3. Crimea’s tourism. Statistics and scientific data. Problems in tourism development
There are a lot of facts that conducive to the development of tourism in the Crimea. For example, natural factors on land-use: climatic, landscape factors (forests, mountains, the sea), healing mineral-water springs, parks and beaches. There are a lot of historical monuments .
Tourism is attracting and profitable branch of the Crimea economy. According to the results of a survey, only in 2015 over 5,7 million people visited the Peninsula:
The main problems of tourism and supporting infrastructure of the Crimea can be divided into 6 groups:
Chapter 2. RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS OF THE CRIMEA TOURISM ON THE BASE OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE
§4 Comparative analysis of structure and content of tourist programs, routes and statistic scientific data on tourism in the UK and the Crimea
The industry of tourism outside Russia (particularly in Britain) is characterized by a high level of service and a great variety of tourist routes.
In the UK the transport infrastructure and service are developed. There are a wide variety of tourist routes  based on the interests and possibilities. Business, educational, cognitive and sports tourisms have been developed very well. Non-traditional active types of tourism have become popular among tourists in recent times. Active tourism attracts a large number of tourists from all over the world. The priority area is sport, riding, fishing, hunting, cultural and cognitive resting. The priority of international tourism is a sea coast.
We have to follow the example of foreign countries and develop Russian tourism to the level of international requirements and standards. The Crimea is interested to attract as many tourists as it can, because every tourist is important for the business. But unfortunately, there are a lot of problems in the Crimea (problems with water, electricity and transport infrastructure). It is necessary to solve them.
The main points for upgrading the Crimean tourism industry:
But look at the bright sight, there are many natural features for sports tourism in the Crimea :
These resources can help to develop tourism industry more successfully. However, in contrast to Britain, we can’t offer interesting routes for tourists. If we can solve this problem, the Crimea will become an attractive place for tourists from all over the world, and will be able to compete with different resorts (of Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, German, etc.) .
The Crimea has a lot of factors, attractive for a modern tourist, but:
To compare the structure, the content of tourists programs and routes in Britain and the Crimea:
The number of tourism centers in Britain is significantly higher than the number of such centers in the Crimea.
My idea is to use innovative experience of Britain to develop tourism in this country. I have revealed the topic of tourism in the Crimea and offered using innovative experience of Britain to develop tourism in this country.
§5. The main factors for tourism development in the Crimea and Britain
Foreign experience can help to make a new model based on the modern interests and trends of tourism business. There is a big difference between the Soviet tourism and new tourism that we have to make. Modern tourists are more demanding; they do not want to visit excursions only for spending time. We have to make a new type of information service that can allow people to choose different tourist routes according to their interests and mood. It is necessary to take into account such important factors as: changing in purchasing behavior, income level of the population, education, fashion and lifestyle.
There is the concept of non-traditional tourism. This type of tourism can be both
traditional and non-traditional. It depends on the type of terrain. As for the Crimea, new types of recreation services can change traditional tourism. There are all required conditions and factors for arranging new types of non-traditional tourism in the peninsula and it is necessary to develop them if we want to attract new tourist flow.
The analysis of international tourism has shown the high popularity of non-traditional types of tourism today.
These days in the Crimea, as elsewhere in the world, extreme vacation becomes popular. Extreme tourism is a niche of tourism industry. It is associated strongly with the sense of physical danger or adrenalin rush, when the human body works with maximum energy and the heart beats harder, raising blood pressure. The Crimea is rich in all factors attracting modern tourist , but this tourism potential is still used very poor.
Rock climbing, underwater navigation, spear fishing and gliding will make the Crimea attractive place for modern travelers. Sportsmen from all parts of our country meet in the mountains and foothill areas of the peninsula to take part in the orienteering. The Crimea in winter is good for mountain-skis rest, in summer it is an amazing place for popular modern activity - diving which has been developing in the Crimea recently. The mountains and cliffs are serious obstacles for real climbers. The length and technical complexity of cliff routes are comparable with the most famous routes of Western Europe and North America. The unique nature, warm climate, clean air and steep cliffs located near the Black sea coast make the Crimean routes attractive for climbers.
Skydiving and flying are very popular extreme activities today. Paragliding is a new type of sport, achieved a big success in Europe, North America and now in the Crimea. It is safe to believe that popularity of this air sport will increase and surpass other sport activities. It is easy to learn paragliding and paragliding over the Black sea will become unbelievable experience.
Zip-line is unique type of sport activity. Participants (often referred to as “zippers”), are suspended from a pulley that moves across the cable, propelled by gravity. The weight of the zipper determines the speed at which the participant travels from point to point. You can check your athletic skill, feel a lot of emotions (adrenalin rush) and enjoy the natural surroundings of the Crimea at the bird’s eye view.
New non-traditional types of tourism have appeared in the Crimea, but they have not been developed enough and some tourists do not know about their existence. Developing new types of tourism will allow improving tourism industry in the Crimea and using natural, economic and historical potential of this region productively.
We have to make new type of information service. The main tasks of this service will
be advertisement of non-traditional tourism and attraction new tourists from different countries. All year round the Crimea is an amazing place for unbelievable vacation. So I’m going to conduct my survey about different types of active tourism.
§6. Development of the questionnaire and conducting the sociological survey for identifying of the demand for tourism services
For preference revelation of Russians and foreigners in the tourism industry in general, and to the vacation in the Crimea in particular, the survey was conducted among young people (in Russia and in Britain).
Everybody was asked 5 questions with choices for answer:
1. “What region would you like visiting this summer?”
a) The Crimea; c) I don’t consider a vacation at all;
b) Foreign countries; d) It’s hard to say.
2. “What kind of vacation do you prefer?”
a) Follow carefully-planned route; b) Without planned route; c) It doesn’t matter.
3. “What type of vacation do you consider?”
a) Active; c) Recreational;
b) Cultural-cognitive; d) All types of vacation.
4. “How long would you like to relax if you chose a vacation in the Crimea?”
a) to 7 days; b) from 8 to 14 days; c) It doesn’t matter.
5. “How should your vacation be arranged?”
a) Detailed schedule; b) Free; c) It’s hard to say.
141persons from the school №386 Saint-Petersburg city and also 79 foreigners from Britain (for communication we used English orally and in writing, Internet communication) took part in the questionnaire.
110 persons (78%) from 141 interviewed chose the vacation in the Crimea answering the question “What region would you like visiting this summer?”
106 persons (75%) from 141 interviewed chose carefully-planned vacation, selected in accordance with their interests earlier:
80 persons from 141 preferred to active vacation - 57%, cultural-cognitive (sights) - 24% and recreational (beaches) - 18%:
111 persons (79%) would spend their vacation in the Crimea during 7 days, 10% - from 8 to 14 days, and for 11% the duration of rest isn’t important:
134 persons (95 %), chose vacation based on detailed schedule:
Thus, analysis of the survey results has shown that 75% persons chose a vacation in the Crimea. They are interested in: the duration of the rest for 7 days and carefully-planned vacation with an agreed route. A modern tourist prefers all types of tourism: mostly active, cultural-cognitive and recreational.
Chapter 3 THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS
§7. Development of an innovative tourist route – “Тhe Graduate” route.
Based on the survey results from the previous chapter I indentified preferences of tourists. These preferences have been described above.
According to the tourists’ preferences, I have developed a tour in the Crimea with the duration of the rest for 7 days. The program is for people, who are ready to try all components of active vacation in the Crimea. Different types of non-traditional tourism are included in the program: paintball, equestrian tourism, boating on a motor-sailing yacht, diving, excursions, zip-line and the most extreme item – paragliding (for thrill-seekers). There are a lot of active components in the program. The innovative item of the route is two-day rides with horses.
I offered this program for my classmates as a way of active vacation together after graduation. It’s a good idea for healthy celebration of high school graduation.
“The Graduate” program
Train travel back and forth from St-Petersburg to Sevastopol
The first day. Meeting at the station of Sevastopol city and bus transportation to the resort “Atlantika”. Study excursion on the territory of the base, visiting “Upper Lake” (50 meters from the base) for 2 hours. Lunch time: 1 p.m. to 1.30 p.m. The first acquaintance with horses (there is the equestrian club). Technical and safety instruction. The first stage will be a teaching of horse-back riding, taking care of the animals and the safest form of communication with the horses. Resting near a swimming pool, catamaran sailing on the lake (for 2 hours) during free time. Dinner time: 6 p.m. to 6.30 p.m. Evening excursion around Sevastopol. Disco.
The second day. Breakfast time: 8 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. Trekking with horses to “Silver streams Waterfall” (for 6 hours, 14 km). Lunch time: 3 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. An excursion in Yalta, “Cave towns of the Crimea”. Dinner time: 6 p.m. to 6.30 p.m.
The third day. Breakfast time: 8 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. Bus tour in the bay of Sevastopol (for 30 min, 20 km). Sea walk on a motor-sailing yacht along the south west coast of the Crimea (for 5 hours). Scuba diving with an instructor. Lunch at a café. Excursion around Sevastopol and visiting monuments. Visiting “Panorama Museum on the Siege of Sevastopol 1854-1855”. Dinner time: 6 p.m.to 6.30 p.m. Disco.
The fourth day. Breakfast time: 8 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. Horseback riding tour to the valley of river Belbek. Accommodation in modern tents. Preparing lunch on a fire (food is provided in the form of dry rations on the base). Lunch time: 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Returning to the base (16 km). Dinner time: 6 p.m. to 6.30 p.m. Free time. Disco.
The fifth day. Breakfast time: 8 a.m. to 8 .30a.m. Transportation to a place, where flights take place. Paragliding excursion around Sevastopol from a bird’s eye view (40 min). Relaxation at the beach “Laspi”. Lunch at a cafe. Zip-line excursion around the mountains and cliffs of the Crimea. Dinner time: 6 p.m. to 6.30 p.m. Disco.
The sixth day. Breakfast time: 8 a.m. to 8 .30a.m. Trip into the sea (4 hours). Fishing. Returning to the base. Paintball . There is a paintball club on the territory of the base. Dinner time: 6 p.m. to 6.30 p.m. Disco.
The seventh day: Breakfast time: 8 a.m. to 8 .30a.m. Horse riding, descent to Baydarsky Valley (4 hours, 8 km), memorable photographing, Lunch time: 1 p.m. to 1.30 p.m. Free time. Departure to the station.
Through a new innovative approach I have developed a tour. Previously I examined the preferences of modern tourists according to world demands. The proposal was motivated by trends in tourism, requirements of consumers, desire to variegate a vacation through interesting and non-traditional types of tourism in the Crimea, and desire to get a full service package. Unlike Turkey and Egypt, this approach isn’t used in the Crimea now. Proposals for tourists do not take into account today’s requirements, they are developed for “average” domestic tourists without special requests. Unfortunately, there is not a system of flexible response to variability of tourism market trends.
§8.Survey on “The Graduate” tour
For determining “is “The Graduate” tour interesting or not for my classmates?” I interviewed 62 pupils. Everybody was asked one question with choices for the answer.
“Will you consider “The Graduate” tour for your future vacation?”
60 persons from 62 interviewed expressed interest to “The Graduate” tour, nobody refused and 2 persons have doubted (look at the table):
Thus, analysis of the survey results has identified that 97% persons chose the tour as summer vacation. It has proved the interests and preferences of tourism development in this direction. It is a practical value of my research.
To achieve the objective of the research some tasks have been designated (see Introduction). In the course of their solution I identified some important factors for promoting tourist destinations in international practice: necessity for constant study of modern tourist's preferences; the usefulness of feedback with the consumer (importance of consumer feedback); possibility of choosing the routes and forms of vacation according to interests of tourists; offer integrated tour services; focus not only on domestic consumers, but also on foreigners; necessity for the development of fashionable new types of tourism (unconventional and extreme).
These innovations determine the efficiency of the tourist industry in the UK. We should introduce them in the modernization of tourist industry of the Crimea, because the available system does not provide due tourism development in the presence of a huge recreational potential of the peninsula at the moment.
During the comparative analysis of the situation in the market in the UK and in the Crimea, I identified factors and problems which impede the development of tourism in Crimea:
Thus, the state programmes for addressing the problems in the transport infrastructure, in the logistical base of the Crimea  have already been launched, it is necessary to widen the tourist environ-mental directions (programmes) using the innovative experience of leading foreign countries. They will progressively affect on economy, and give impetus to the further improvement of the Crimea's tourism industry. And, consequently, innovations in international tourism can save potential of the Crimea and attract new tourist flow.
Selected problems of tourism in Crimea, which require solution today: limited proposals active tourism for youth, alternative international tourism, small amount of tourist routes. They should be expanded by the way of learning demand. In the course of studies a questionnaire was developed and a sociological survey was conducted in order to identify the demand for tourist services. According to these preferences of the innovative program the tourist route "The Graduate" was developed on the Crimean peninsula. Thus, the main goal of our research has been achieved (see Introduction).
Studies show the necessity to change stereotyped lopsided system proposals. It is important to offer not only tours based on the natural dimensions of potential of the Crimea, but also develop additional services for types of tourism as well as the number of firms offering them. Saving the majority of tourist services on the massive recreation "average" undemanding traveler prevents the development of new types of tourism. It hampers the development of tourism on the peninsula. It is necessary to use new methods in the formation of the tourist product, taking into account many unaccounted previously factors. Those factors include: important indicators such as changes in purchasing behavior, income level, fashion, lifestyle, etc. Nowadays marketing researches are currently poorly used by tour operators in developing rounds. There is no customer feedback, suggestions are built without supply and demand of tourists.
Tourists should be able to choose a route that meets their interests and mood: different modes of locomotion, kinds of the touristic complexes and other criteria. Tourist companies or operators must be established accordingly, which are able to respond flexibly to the demands of theirs customers, using the most modern achievements of world science and practice in their chosen field of work, i.e. work on innovative principles.
One of the tendencies in the development of modern international tourism is receiving tourists through a complex service. A full range of services is available to tourists by selling tours, which include the cost of transporting tourists to the destination and back, accommodation in a hotel, motels, boarding house or in the private sector, food (full-Board, or partial-half board), excursions and other services provided by a certain number of days tourists stay in the destination area.
In developing the program of the tour "the graduate" all results have been taken into account of the re-search. It applied fashion trends in tourism and modern tourist preferences. This proposal is dictated by demand. Conducted market research on demand for this tour with elements of unconventional tourist destinations showed that this direction arouse interest among consumers and has prospects of development, which is the practical value of my research. The program and ideas for its development can be used by tour operators as the base for the development of new and efficient direction in tourism industry, modernization. Tour "the Graduate" was proposed by my classmates as a joint holiday after graduation (Chapter 3, § 9). Also, this is a great offer for graduates of other schools, as a joint celebration of graduation, because it is dictated by the demand of the young generation, the desire to diversify vacation interesting and unconventional forms of tourism in the Crimea.
Innovative international approaches to the development of tourism in Crimea will give opportunity to build a new model of organization of tourist services based on modern trends of the global tourism industry.
The project is introduced in the market of the Crimea's tourism industry for the first time. Active recreation has been started to develop recently. It survives at the expense of sports clubs and limited information service. There are few programs to promote tourism on the peninsula, a range of proposals on the types of unconventional and extreme tourism and routes is limited. It is necessary to create a full set of proposals in the one company.
1. Abdulhairov A.Z. . Economic problems and prospects of development of the Crimea as a tourist region. Мodern problems of service and tourism. 2015. Т. 9. № 1. Moscow. Publisher: Russian State University of tourism and service. Р. 44-115.
2. Ermakov A.S. Тourist business UK: history and basic directions of development of the industry. SERVICE PLUS. 2015.Т. 9, № 2. Moscow. Publisher: Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian state University of tourism and service". Р. 119.
3. Electronic resource: www.russiatourism.ru
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