III Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
 
     

СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ АНГЛИЙСКИХ И РУССКИХ НАРОДНЫХ СКАЗОК О ЖИВОТНЫХ
Филиппова А.В.
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Диплом школьника      Диплом руководителя
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Исследовательская работа

Introduction

Childhood is the most careless and happiest part of any person's lifetime, when everyone is told tales for night: short and long, magic and romantic, about princes, witches and talking animals, where the characters are able to animate and create the most incredible miracles.

The beginning of the study was a survey (the English teacher asked me to do) among all students of 10-11 Grades of our schools in order to find out the attitude of modern teenagers to fairy tales, to determine the most favourite ones and what they know about the history of these tales [Appendix1]. The results of the survey was really surprised and made me start my research. The questions which I decided to study: what are fairy tales different from other literary work? Why do today's children and young people, who cannot fancy their lives without mobile phones and the Internet, know and remember them?

So, the purpose of this research is to study the English and the Russian animal folk tales and determine their common and distinctive features.

Objectives are

1. To study the literature and Internet sources about the history of English folk tales about animals.

2. Read the most popular English animal folk tales and reveal their singularities.

3. Analyse the results and establish common and different features of English and Russian animal folk tales on the example of the English folk tale "Rooster and Fox” and the Russian folk tale "The Cock and the Fox" and formulate conclusion.

The object of my research is English and Russian folk tales about animals.

The subject is to define common and distinctive features of English and Russian animal folk tales.

Methods which were used by me:

- Search

- Comparative

- Analytical.

Hypothesis: Russian and English animals tales have common features because of uniform laws of historical development and some differences that clearly reflect on uniqueness and development of each nation. Consequently, the English animal tales can be one of the sources to learn history and cultural background of the English.

Novelty: It is my first research and experience in the English language.

Chapter1. Literary review on the topic.

1.1. History of English folk tales.

All nations in the world have and keep own tales. They reflect their soul, wisdom, thoughts and aspirations. In England folk tales were collected and written later than in Russia, Germany and France. The first collections of the British folk tales were published in the 80 of 19th century: "English Fairy Tales" (1880) and "Even more English fairy tales" (1894). The person who did such a great work was Joseph Jacobs (1854-1916). He was the president of the English folk club, a literary critic and a writer who, moreover, collected and published two volumes of the English folk tales. On the contrary of the well-known collector of fairy tales Afanasyev in Russa, Charles Perrault in France and the Brothers Grimm in Germany, Jacobs’ goal was to record the English folk tales in original.

The English folk tales thanks to its originality and uniqueness have attracted the attention of many writers for a long time. The famous Russian folk tales "Three Bears" and "Three Little Pigs", factually have British background. They became known owing to Lev Tolstoy and Sergey Mikhalkov. [6]

The fairy tale “Three Bears" was placed in a 10 volume of the 22 issued in 1872. This option of the English tale was changed by Lev Tolstoy. Now it is widely popular in our country. Mikhalkov was the first translator of "The Tale of three little pigs" which was published in the youth newspaper "Pioneer truth" in 1936 April 16. [6]

1.2. Distinctive features of the English animal folk tales.

Animal folk tales are a special group of folk stories where the main characters are the creatures of animal world. People’s qualities and feelings, aspiration and hope are portrayed in these animals. English animal folk tales or animalistic tales make up 17% of all British fairy tales, while the Russian ones as the researchers note, only 10% of total Russian fairy tales [6].

What distinguishes the English folk tales have?

  1. The English animalistic tales are the most ancient work of fantasy genre. According to the Russian scholar and folklorist V.P Anikin, "fairy tales about animals can be an encyclopedia of people‘s lives. They reflect the old rites, the age-old experience of primitive hunters and ranchers. In ancient times such tales were told before starting of the hunt because that ceremony had a magical significance " [2, p. 5].

2. English folk tales have all typical features of this group of tales: the existence of "evil" hero (the wolf), the cunning one (the third little pig), the victory of the good over the evil and cunning.

3. Structure of the English animal tales is quite simple: a small size of text, simplicity and elementary plot and peculiarity of the composition. In the English tale it achieves overlaying an episode to episode and repeating events. It usually happens 3 times. All researchers of fairy tales associated this fact (trinity) with Christian belief.

4. Typically, tale’s end is the victory of good and punishment of evil. (Wolf is punished in “Three pigs”) but sometimes, as in reality, the magical story has not happy end for the hero / heroes ( in "Three pigs", a wolf could eat two ones).

5. The cause of animal characters’ actions is not to become famous. They only want to avoid failure. They are often contemplators. If so, what is the happiness for English fairy tales’ characters? It turns out that after a plenty of events and adventures they want to get or find some realistic wealth.

6. One of the important characteristics of these fairy tales is the independence of hero. He usually acts alone and all his difficulties are always solved himself without waiting for any help.

7. The English animal fairy tale does not have the traditional introduction and ending ("Lived ..." "I was there ..."). There is no adjectives, diminutive expressions, circulation and what the most surprising is lack of songs. Sometimes readers see even a tragic finish of the hero ("Three Pigs").

Chapter 2.Practice part.

2.1. Comparative analysis of English and Russian animalistic folk tale "Fox and rooster" and "The Cock and the Fox".

It has been observed some similarities in the tales of people living in different parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. According to the Russian folklorist N.P Andreev 53.7% of fairy stories’ plots are international and only 10% are considered as Russian background.[3] That’s why, a popular tale "Cinderella", one of French fairy tales of Charles Perrault, has more than three hundred “sisters” in the world.

This fact gives us the opportunity to compare the tales of peoples of the world, to find out their similarities and differences which makes the study of fairy tales even more interesting and informative.

For comparison I took an English folk tale «Fox and Rooster» and Russian folk tale "The Cock and the Fox" which we have known since childhood. So, there is no need to reproduce it’s text. Compared these tales I made a table. [Appendix 2]

Comparing these two tales can be distinguished following:

  1. Heroes in both tales are the fox and the cock.

  2. These fairy tales have opposition (strong and weak), antithesis. In both tales cock is opposed to fox, both heroes speak and solve similar problems. The beginning of the English fairy tale is "Once fox-cunning eyes, fluffy tail crept quietly into the farmhouse ..." and in Russian tale with "Once upon a rooster, a golden comb...".

  3. The climax (the point of highest tension) in both fairy tales "Fox stole the rooster", as isolation (the end of action), is the same in both fairy tales ”Fox was unable to eat cock”. But in the English fairy tale, only thanks to its wit rooster escapes death, while in the Russian fairy tale Rooster calls friends for help.

  4. The heroes of Russian fairy tales are rich in epithets, comparative revolutions, many words with the diminutive suffix "Cock, Cockerel, golden scallop .." The English tale to create the national colouring is used colloquial words and expressions, for example, "so foolish are people, they want to catch you, Fox! Where are they, how to keep up with you!”

  5. In both tales, there is a dialogue of the main characters.

Thus, by comparing and analysing these results I can consider some following common aspects of English and Russian animalistic folk tales:

  1. The main characters (heroes) of these Russian and English tales are animals and rarely birds.

  2. In Russian and English animal fairy tales the rooster is a positive image, while the fox can be negative.

  3. These Russian and English animalistic tales have a similar storyline, meaning and traditionally good is opposed to evil.

  4. Both countries are often used magic numbers “3”.

However, Russian animalistic folk tales differ from English folk tales:

  1. We cannot fancy Russian animal folk tales without a lot of adjectives, comparative revolutions, bright, lively and melodious heroes’ speaking, whereas the English folk tales are used folk words and phrases of the nation.

  2. Russian fairy tales include a plenty of songs because in Russia they were told with quiet music.

3. The main idea of Russian tales is self - sacrifice, whereas in English is self – solving problem.

4. All Russian tales start with traditional beginning (Once upon a time…

There were…) which lack in the English ones.

So, we can confidently say that at the same time folk tales demonstrate both national identity of each nation (in folklore animals as the heroes of fairy tales speak and behave like people in the country where happen these stories) and some universal laws of development of peoples living on the same planet.

Conclusion

Doing my research I studied books on the history of English fairy tales, read the most popular ones and thoroughly analysed the English folk tale "Fox and Rooster" and the Russian folk tale "The Cock and the Fox" which allowed me to draw conclusion about the similarities and data differences of animal folk tales. The material of my study shows that the goal and objectives have been solved because I answered all my questions.

The hypothesis that the tales help to understand better the life as they allergically transmitted and reflected the real events of history and culture, are proved.

And in conclusion, I want to point out that fairy tale is the unique "…encyclopedia of peoples and ethnic groups’ lifestyles. .." [2] which can be read and reread constantly and every time discovered new and surprising things. While humanity exists, it needs a dream and, therefore, people cannot live without fairy tales. They make us amuse, inspire, educate and give hope for the best future .

Bibliography

1. Английские народные сказки.

2. Аникин В.П. Русская народная сказка. М: Просвещение. 1977

3. Андреев Н.П. Указатель сказочных сюжетов по системе Аарне.Л.: Лениздат, 1929. 221с.

4. Афанасьев А.Н. Народные русские сказки: В 3х т./ Подг. текст и примеч. В.Я.Проппа /М.: 1957

5. Ведерникова Н.М. Русская народная сказка. М.: 1975. - 432с.

Resources

6. http:// ru.wikipedia.org

7. http:// studbook.net. Особенности английских сказок о животных.

Appendix1

The results of survey of students

"Tsipya secondary School"

Baltasy district RT (10 - 11 Grades)

Questions

Respondents' answers

1.

Tales of your childhood.

"Three Bears" - 30%, "Three Little Pigs" - 25%, "Turnip" - 20%, "Speckled Hen" - 20%, "Shurale" - 5%. I do not remember - 0%

2.

Who told or read you these stories for night?

Grandmother - 45%, Mom - 40%

No one - 15%

3.

What do you know about the background of these tales?

Russian folk tale - 95%

Tatar folk tale -5%

4.

What role fairy tales played in your life?

"Childhood without fairy tales can not be ..." - 91%, "I do not remember" - 5%, "It was a way to dream" - 4%

5.

Are you familiar with the British fairy tales?

"I just can not say" - 70%, "No" 20%, "They're all like" - 10%

Appendix 2

Comparing English and Russian folk tales:

"Fox and Rooster" and "The Cock and the Fox"

 

Russian tale

English tale

Characters

The Cock and the Fox

Rooster and Fox

Antithesis

Wild animal- a fox, pet - a cat and a cockerel

Wild animal-a fox, pet - a rooster

Heroes’ speech

Rich epithets, comparative revolutions, words with diminutive suffix (Estimated definitions).

Red rooster comb-sly voice.

Sly fox-eye-fluffy tail.

(Logical definitions).

Who came to help

Trush and cat

independently

Where happens the action

Fox lives in the forest but a rooster, a cat and a Drozd in the hut.

Fox lives in the forest and the cock on the farm estate.

The beginning.

Once upon a time…

There were…

(No beginning)

One-sly-fox-eye fluffy tail crept slowly in One-cunning fox-eye-furry-tail crept quietly into the farm estate ...

Culmination

Fox stole the rooster

Fox stole the rooster

Outcome

Rooster was rescued by friends.

Rooster rescued itself.

Ideal

Self-sacrifice.

to solve problems independently

Magic number

the fox stole the cockerel 3 times

-

Appendix 3

The English folk tale “Fox and Rooster”

One fox-sly-eye-furry-tail crept quietly into the farmhouse and dragged chubby Cockerel. There was a terrible commotion, and everyone rushed in pursuit of the thief. Fox had to flee what was the spirit, but the Cockerel of the teeth it is not released. But Cockerel red-comb-loud-voice did not want to get into Fox for lunch. And while she ran to his burrow, he thought so thought out how he could make the Fox-thief to unclench his teeth. So he spoke to her so sweetly, so softly: - So stupid are people that want to catch you, Fox! Where are they, how to keep up with you! Fox liked such speech: she was not only clever, but also vain. A Cock red-comb, sweet voice continued:

- And yet even though they do not catch you, and not so it's probably nice when you are being chased for and even shout: "Stop thief! Stop thief "If I were in your place, he shouted to them:" This is my cock, and not the one which stolen! "And the people will be left behind, and you're going to run safely home. Then Fox could not stand it, unclenched his teeth, she lifted up her head and cried:

- This is my rooster! A Cock red-comb-cunning-voice did not lose time in vain, and took to their heels. Only Fox and his saw.

Appendix 4

The Russian folk tale “The Cock and the Fox”

В лесу в маленькой избушке жили-были кот да петух. Кот рано утром

Жили были кот, дрозд да петушок — золотой гребешок. Жили они в лесу, в избушке. Кот да дрозд ходят в лес дрова рубить, а петушка одного оставляют.

Уходят — строго наказывают:

— Мы пойдем далеко, а ты оставайся домовничать, да голоса не подавай, когда придет лиса, в окошко не выглядывай.

Проведала лиса, что кота и дрозда дома нет, прибежала к избушке, села под окошко и запела:

— Петушок, петушок,

Золотой гребешок,

Масляна головушка,

Шелкова бородушка,

Выгляни в окошко,

Дам тебе горошку.

Петушок и выставил головку в окошко. Лиса схватила его в когти, понесла в свою нору.

Закричал петушок:

— Несет меня лиса

За темные леса,

За быстрые реки,

За высокие горы… Кот и дрозд, спасите меня!

Кот и дрозд услыхали, бросились в погоню и отняли у лисы петушка. В другой раз кот и дрозд пошли в лес дрова рубить и опять наказывают:

— Ну, теперь, петух, не выглядывай в окошко, мы еще дальше пойдем, не услышим твоего голоса.

Они ушли, а лиса опять прибежала к избушке и запела:

— Петушок, петушок,

Золотой гребешок,

Масляна головушка,

Шелкова бородушка,

Выгляни в окошко,

Дам тебе горошку.

Петушок сидит помалкивает. А лиса — опять:

— Бежали ребята,

Рассыпали пшеницу,

Курицы клюют,

Петухам не дают…

Петушок и выставил головку в окошко:

— Ко-ко-ко! Как не дают?!

Лиса схватила его в когти, понесла в свою нору.

Закричал петушок:

— Несет меня лиса

За темные леса,

За быстрые реки,

За высокие горы…

Кот и дрозд, спасите меня!

Кот и дрозд услыхали, бросились в погоню. Кот бежит, дрозд летит… Догнали лису — кот дерет, дрозд клюет, и отняли петушка.

Долго ли, коротко ли, опять собрались кот да дрозд в лес дрова рубить. Уходя, строго-настрого наказывают петушку:

— Не слушай лисы, не выглядывай в окошко, мы еще дальше уйдем, не услышим твоего голоса.

И пошли кот да дрозд далеко в лес дрова рубить.

А лиса — тут как тут, села под окошечко и поет:

— Петушок, петушок,

Золотой гребешок,

Масляна головушка,

Шелкова бородушка,

Выгляни в окошко.

Дам тебе горошку.

Петушок сидит помалкивает.

А лиса — опять:

— Бежали ребята,

Рассыпали пшеницу,

Курицы клюют,

Петухам не дают…

Петушок все помалкивает.

А лиса — опять:

— Люди бежали,

Орехов насыпали,

Куры-то клюют,

Петухам не дают…

Петушок и выставил головку в окошко:

— Ко-ко-ко! Как не дают?!

Лиса схватила его в когти плотно, понесла в свою нору, за темные леса, за быстрые реки, за высокие горы…

Сколько петушок ни кричал, ни звал — кот и дрозд не услышали его. А когда вернулись домой — петушка-то нет.

Побежали кот и дрозд по Лисицыным следам. Кот бежит, дрозд летит… Прибежали к лисицыной норе.

Кот настроил гусельцы и давай натренькивать:

— Трень, брень, гусельцы,

Золотые струночки…

Еще дома ли Лисафья-кума,

Во своем ли теплом гнездышке?

Лисица слушала, слушала и думает: «Дай-ка посмотрю — кто это так хорошо на гуслях играет, сладко напевает».

Взяла да и вылезла из норы. Ко и дрозд ее схватили — и давай бить-колотить. Били и колотили, покуда она ноги не унесла. Взяли они петушка, посадили в лукошко и принесли домой. И с тех пор стали жить да быть, да и теперь живут.