III Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
 
     

ЗДОРОВЫЙ ОБРАЗ ЖИЗНИ
Кокунова Д.А.
Автор работы награжден дипломом победителя второй степени
Диплом школьника      Диплом руководителя
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Let me introduce myself. My name is Dasha Kokunova. I am a pupil of the 8th form of school number 28. Next year I am going to pass my exam in English. I work hard at it to improve my language skills. So I participate in different contests and conferences. Now I would like to present you my project. Its theme "Healthy Style of Life" is very important and actual nowadays. Everybody knows "Health is above wealth" and it is really so. In my project I’ve tried to answer the question: what does it mean: to keep a healthy lifestyle? This is the problem question of my research.

My hypothesis:Everybody understands the phrase «healthy lifestyle» correctly and follow healthy habits

My aim:

1.To learn some information about healthy life style in order to answer my problem question.

I’ve done it according to the plan:

  1. Healthy eating.

  2. Bad habits.

  3. Sports in our life.

  4. Environmental influence.

2.To make some practical research among my classmates in order to prove or disapprove my hypothesis

Preparing for my project I’ve used such means of mass media as the Internet, newspapers and magazines. My English textbooks were also useful for me. I also made a research among my classmates.

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Healthy eating

Eating is one the most important events in everyone’s life. We enjoy eating - it’s part of who we are and part of our culture; in fact, eating is the hottest universal topic of all times. We depend on eating: the foods we eat are the sole source of our energy and nutrition. We know so much about eating: we are born with the desire to eat and grown up with rich traditions of eating. But we also know so little about eating - about how the foods we eat everyday affect our health. We are more confused than ever about the link between diet and health: margarine is healthier than butter or not; a little alcohol will keep heart attacks at bay but cause breast cancer; dietary vitamin antioxidants can prevent lung cancer or can not. Eating is a paradox and a mystery that our ancestors tried and modern scientists are trying to solve.

Regardless of how you view food, you need it to live. You need the right kinds of food in the right amounts to have a healthy life. Your needs for different kinds of food change as grow and mature. Everyone needs the three key nutrients that provide the body with energy and the necessary building blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, and protein. Unfortunately, in our world today, not every one has access to all of these all the time. World hanger is a global problem that needs to be addressed by all nations.

The right type and kind of foods the body needs to grow, develop, and stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good, daily, balanced diet is key to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you know what you eat every day?

Why do you think you eat the foods you eat? Eating the right food everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it also nourishes our spirits, our creativity and thinking, and our language and interaction with other people.

People nowadays are more health-conscious than they used to be. They understand that good health is above wealth.

As you know food industry and rapidly developed nowadays. It brings us new foods. Mass media spread information about food, nutrition health, and diet faster than ever before. According to scientific facts, such products as garlic, apricots, green tea, onion, milk, bananas, cabbage, cranberry, carrots are good for us. They perfectly influence our body. We should remember it.

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Garlic prevents heart disease. Carrots are good for your eyesight.

Onion is good for your nerves. Cabbage may help prevent the

development to cancer.

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Apricot is good for your skin. Brown eggs are more nutritious

than white eggs.

.

Eating only one type of food, such as grapefruit, helps to lose weight

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Green tea protects your teeth. Cranberry helps soothe your

tired eyes.

Bananas are good for your muscles.

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In recent years eating habits have undergone a change. People are encouraged to eat less fat and more fiber. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity and heart disease. High fiber and low fat foods can now be found in all shops and supermarkets. Salads, beans, and fruit have taken the place of steak and ice cream. The fashion for health food is growing all the time. Many people feel they are too fat, even if their doctors disagree. And a lot of people try to improve their fitness. There are a lot of ways to lose weight and avoid gaining it. Perhaps the most popular of them is following a diet. If you want to lose weight, you should cut out snacks and desserts, and cut down on fat. People have also become more aware of calories, the energy value of food. Some people count the number of calories they eat every day; so that they can try to take in fewer calories and lose weight. This is called a calorie-controlled diet. Manufacturers are increasingly producing special foods with fewer calories for slimmer.

Name: Angelina Jolie. She is an actress.

But excessive dieting may be dangerous, too. Some people refuse to eat meat as they consider it harmful. They say a vegetarian diet reduces the risk of cancer and vegetarians live longer than others. I can't agree with them, because meat is an excellent source of good nutrition. In my opinion, it's wrong to put down a food simply because excessive amounts can cause health problems. Consumed in moderate amounts, meat is perfectly good for our health.

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Bad habits

To be healthy we should avoid different bad habits that can affect our health. In my opinion, smoking and drinking too much alcohol, are the worst ones. It's common knowledge that smoking and drinking can shorten our lives dramatically. Smoking, for example, causes a number of heart and lung diseases, such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. Besides, it makes your teeth yellow and skin unhealthy. Fortunately, in recent years smoking has received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer people smoke nowadays. Some companies don't employ people who are smokers. Smoking has been banned in most public places because everyone agrees it does harm to our health. I don't smoke, because I don't want to have unhealthy skin and teeth and die young.

Smoking and drinking are joined by less dangerous habits, such as skipping meals, eating unhealthy food, or even overeating. Of course, they are not quite as deadly as smoking or drinking alcohol, but they also affect our health. If we eat too much, we'll become obese, and obesity leads to serious health problems. A lot of people like drinking coca cola and coffee, and enjoy pizzas and hamburgers. But what is tasty is not always healthy. Fast food makes you fat, that's why Americans are the fattest people in the world.

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Fast Food of America

Have you ever enjoyed a hamburger, sitting on a lawn? May be you're against all these hot dogs and cheeseburgers, because it's a junk food. Anyway, it is always interesting to find out something about the origin and history of such trifles, which make our life more comfortable. They really make life more pleasant, especially outdoors, don't they?

Pop-Corn

It’s impossible to imagine American take-away food or snacks without popcorn. Clear as a day, it is made from corn. But what about the first part of the word “pop”. Actually, when you put a kernel of corn on a fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a “pop” noise. That is why we call it popcorn. It’s an interesting thing to know that not all corn pops. A seed of corn must contain 14% water in it. Other kinds of corn have less water and do not pop. The American Indians, who popped corn a long time ago, knew that special sort. They introduced corn to the first settlers. In 1620 when Pilgrims had a Thanksgiving dinner they invited the Indians, who brought popcorn with them. Since that time Americans continued to pop corn at home. But in 1945 a new machine was invented that changed the history of the product. The electric machine enabled to pop corn outside the home. And soon movies started selling popcorn to make more money. The famous American habit of eating popcorn at the movies is well-known. Many people like to put salt or melted butter in their popcorn, some proper to have it without. Either way Americans love their popcorn.

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The Hot Dog

The original name of the hot dog was the frankfurter, after the German city of Frankfurt. In the United States frankfurters, sausages on buns, were first sold in the 1860s. But for Americans the name “dachshund sausage” seemed to be a good one for the frankfurter. In actual fact, a dachshund is a dog from Germany with a very long body and short legs. Dachshund sausages first became popular in New-York especially at baseball games, where they were sold by men keeping them warm in hot water tanks. The men walked up and down the rows of people and yelled “Get your hot dachshund sausages here!” And in 1906 the newspaper cartoonist Tad Dorgan saw the men with the dachshund sausages and got an idea for a cartoon: he drew a bun with a dachshund inside – not a sausage but a dog. The cartoonist didn’t know how to spell the word “dachshund” and under the picture he just wrote: “Get your hot dogs!” The cartoon was a sensation as well as the name. If you go to a baseball game today, you can still see sellers walking around with hot water tanks and yelling, “Get your hot dogs here! Get your hot dogs here!”

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The Hamburger

An obligatory item on the list of fast food, the hamburger has no connection to ham, but with the German town of Hamburg, which was famous for its ground steak. German immigrants to the United States introduced the “hamburger steak”. At the St. Louis World’s Fair in 1904, hamburger steaks were served on buns for the first time. It was convenient and tasty and became a usual way of eating hamburgers. But how did the hamburgers become the most popular, most typical American food? The introduction of the bun is the important part of the answer. Another important part, due to which hamburgers have become well-known and favorite all around the world is McDonald’s, the fast food restaurant. The first restaurant was opened in San Bernardino, California, in 1949 and hamburgers were the main item on its menu, as well as the hamburger remains the maim in all McDonald’s restaurants today.

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Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola The world famous fresh drink Coca-Cola first was an all-purpose medicine, made in 1886 by a druggist from Atlanta, who made a brown syrup by mixing coca leaves and cola nuts. The syrup wasn’t a success and then another druggist, Jacobs, had an idea of selling Coca-Cola as a soda fountain drink. He mixed the syrup with soda water. Soon everyone was going to soda fountains and asking for Coca-Cola. An immigrant from Ireland, Asa Candler bought the recipe of the drink and having registered the company, became its father in 1892. In 1899 the first bottling factory was opened. The shaped bottle, as we know it today was invented in 1916 to protect the trademark. And again the World War II helped to make Coca-Cola popular outside America, when the Coca-Cola Company sent bottles of the drink to US soldiers fighting in Europe. It became so popular with the soldiers that the US Army asked the company to start ten factories in Europe. It’s a curious thing but of 1903 coca leaves were no longer used in the drink. The exact ingredients and the quantities are not known – the Coca-Cola Company keeps its recipe a secret.

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My opinion about sports

To my mind, the only way to stay healthy and to keep fit is by going in for sports. Among the benefits of regular exercise are a healthier heart, stronger bones, quicker reaction times and more resistance to various illnesses. Besides, you can eat and drink as much as you want because you are burning it all off. To be healthy, it is also very important to spend a lot of time in the open air. It is useful to go for a walk before going to bed, or to air the room. I think it is very important to be fit and healthy, and it is necessary to take care of your health. Being fat, in fact, can cause real problems. It is harder for fat people to get a good job, or even to make friends. If you want to do well, you must be thin. That's why I go in for sports on a regular basis. I have been doing aerobics for three years and I feel great. I am not enthusiastic about strict dieting, but I try to eat only low-fat food, and fruit and vegetables which are rich in vitamins. Personally I believe that regularity in life promotes our health. Sleeping eight or nine hours, getting up early, regular meals, a healthy diet and going in for sports is really a good way to live.

It is basketball. It is swimming.

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Sports in our life

Millions of people all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport help people to stay in good shape, keeps them fit, healthy and makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities.

Sport plays an important role in the life of many people. It makes people more healthy and it’s a good way of spending free time.

Sport is good for health, but only if you are sport-lover. Professional sportsmen have a lot of injuries.

In Russia winter is very long and cold, so people can’t afford to spend a lot of time in the fresh air. But if it is not very cold skiing and skating are a good way to stay fit.

If you ask anyone about health, practically all the people will say that sport influences health, and all people should do sport. It can be not only tennis, basketball and hockey but it also can be something like dancing, walking, etc.

Sport in Russia plays a large role, and there are a lot of kinds of sport which are new for Russian people.

Fitness is a combination of body composition and muscular performance. It decreases your risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and other life threatening diseases.

Aerobic exercises which involves steady constant motion of the muscles increases the body's demand for oxygen. In this manner aerobic exercise works your heart muscle making it bigger and stronger. Examples of aerobic exercises are walking, running, swimming, and cycling.

There are some rules for persons who want to stay fit and be healthy.

  1. Physically exercise should be given the same importance as any important event. Regardless of what exercise you choose, 20-30 minutes 3 times a week should be placed into your timetable.

  2. Pedal your way to fitness and enjoy the scenery and the company of family or friends.

  3. To increase your physical activity doesn't always mean going to the gym. Try putting it into your daily routine. If you do this, your are more likely to keep doing it because you don't have to go out of your way to exercise.

  4. Take stairs whenever possible - particularly if you are going four floors or less. Even if you work on the 60th floor, try climbing a few flights and then taking the lift just shy of your floor and walk the rest of the way.

  5. Don't use the remote control, get up and change the T.V. channel.

If you follow these rules you will fell yourself O.K!

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Sport in my life

I should admit that everyone must do all he can to be healthy. Good health is better than the best medicine. "A healthy mind in a healthy mind" as the old Latin saying goes. The English proverb "Sickness in the body brings sickness to the mind" expresses a similar idea but from different point of view. All kinds of physical exercises are very useful to make our bodies strong and to keep ourselves fit and healthy. To tell the truth I don't do sports very often. I like to dance and I go to a dance circle. In the morning I do some exercises just to awake, too. Then some aerobics for myself. It puts me into the fine moods. In summer I like swimming, riding the bike or horse riding. I think I am not the person who can be fond of doing sports, though I consider sport an important part of human life. It really helps us to be healthy in mind and body. The human body is much more complicated than any machine. Yet it need less day-to-day care than machine. No machine can do all the things the body can do. No machine will work for 70 years or more, day and night, requiring only air, water, food and a few simple rules.

Frankly speaking, I have never had a wish to be a professional sportsman. I think professional sport is not really suitable for young people, because children just can't cope with the pressures of the world of sport. To my mind, young players shouldn't be allowed to become professionals until the age of 17 or 18 at least. The problem is that sport organizations try to find children at quite a young age, to train them and motivate them as early as possible. At that age they don't have social problems, they don't have boyfriends of girlfriends, so they give their sport the whole of their life. But they are so young that they can lose their childhood, and they're adults before they're 16. But of course they are not adults at all. Physically they can be quite developed, but emotionally they're still children. So in my opinion, children should stay at home, stay at school, do the things that teenagers like doing. And if when they're older they would really like to be a professional player, well, they will be a little older than all other sportsmen, but they'll be better people for it, of that I'm perfectly sure. To be champions in the world of sport is really a high price if sport brakes the lives of children. This is my point of view. And if I had a chance to talk with a professional sportsman, I think I would like to meet some famous figure skater. I would like to know how it feels when you represent your country at the world championship. I guess it is a really great responsibility to be the hope of the nation.

My family mostly doesn't go in for sports. The only popular outdoor activity in our family is travelling. Every summer we make voyages around the country, and of course driving to the Black sea which is one of our most beloved places. But that's the only kind of sport which is popular in our family.

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Environmental influence

The Earth is our home but much of it is dirty and dying. Rapid industrial development caused a lot of ecological problems. They are: air pollution, water pollution, growth of population and shortage of mineral resources.

Air becomes polluted in many ways. Cars, trucks, buses, airplanes, factories and plants send burnt gases into the air. The production of electricity causes not only air pollution but acid rains and global warming. Because of acid rains the Earth looses twenty million acres of tropical rainforests every year. This means the extinction of thousands of species that live there, for example tigers. Only 67 thousand tigers remain. Tigers are hunted and killed for their body parts, which are used in oriental medicines. The ozone layer is destroyed too and the dangerous rays get through the atmosphere causing skin cancer and other diseases.

Seventy percent of the Earth is covered by oceans. Oceans are vital for the life on Earth. They provide homes for millions of plants and animals, provide people with food and help regulate the climate. But now they are a big dumping ground for tons of toxic waste. Most big cities pour their waste into seas and rivers. For a long time people did not realize the danger. The first alarm came from Japan: sixty people died because they have eaten polluted fish. The Baltic sea is a special case. Because it is such a small sea, it becomes dirty very easily. 250 rivers run into the Baltic. There are hundreds of factories on these rivers and millions of people live along them. Seven industrial countries surround the Baltic. Once we have polluted the sea, it is very difficult to clean it. Fortunately all the countries realized the problems and co-operated to solve ecological problems. I would like to dwell on practical measures which must be taken in order to improve the ecological situation: the factories and plants must be removed from cities; green zones must be created; pollution control systems must be introduced; purifying systems for cleaning and trapping harmful substances must be widely used; almost everything is recyclable today – recycling is a great way to reduce waste.

We need clean air to breathe and pure water to drink. We need also food that is safe to eat and housing to shelter us. We can’t get all these things by ourselves. We live in community so we can solve our problems only working together. Russia is co-operating in the field of environmental protection with the USA, Canada, Norway, Finland and other countries. A lot of public organizations have been established. One of them is Green Peace which was formed in 1971 with its Head-quarters in Amsterdam. The area of operation is 25 countries world-wide. Its objectives are to protect wild life and atmosphere, to prevent disposal of toxic waste and nuclear tests.

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Practical Part

In practical part I made the research among 10 pupils from my group. I asked them some questions about healthy lifestyle. These are the results:

  1. Do you pay much attention to your health?

9 students – yes

1 student - no

  1. Do you often have snacks?

7 students – yes

3 students – no.

  1. What do you prefer eating – chips or apples?

5 students – chips

5 students – apples

  1. Do you do morning exercises?

4 students – yes;

6 students – no

  1. Do you go in for sports?

3 students – yes

7 students – no

  1. Do you follow a strict daily routine?

4 students – yes

6 students – no

  1. Do you take a shower everyday?

6 students – yes

4 students – no

  1. Do you always wash your hands before eating?

8 students – yes

2 students – no

  1. How do you usually spend your free time?

6 students – playing computer games

1student – doing sport

3 students – reading books

  1. Have you got any bad habits?

8 students – yes

2 students – no

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Analysis of results.

According to this survey I can make some conclusions. As I see 90% of students pay much attention to their health. It is a good result. But in fact, it is not proved by students answers to the rest of the questions. For example, 70% of students often have snacks and do not go in for sports. Then 60% of them spend their free time playing computer games and do not follow a strict daily routine. But one fact surprised me most of all. 80% of my group mates have bad habits. So taking into account most of the answers I can declare that my classmates misunderstand the meaning “Healthy style of life”. I believe it is necessary to inform our class teacher about it and discuss the results together.

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In conclusion, I can say that I have reached the aim and found that not everyone understands the phrase healthy lifestyle correctly. That’s why my hypothesis was not proved, because the results of my research show that only some students follow healthy habits.

Finally, I would like to say that we must do all the best to be healthy. Good health is better than the best medicine. "A healthy mind is in a healthy mind" as the old Latin saying goes.

The list of literature:

  1. Английский язык «Форвард»

М.В. Вербицкая

Издательство «Вентана-Граф» 2016 год

  1. Enjoy English

М.З. Биболетова

Издательство «Титул» 2010 год

3.Учебное пособие:

«600 устных тем по английскому языку»

И. Ю. Баканова, Н. В. Береговая, И. Г. Бирюсова и другие

Издательство «Дрофа» 2010 год

  1. Сайты в Интернете:

www. 5 balov. ru

http: // info English. info

http:// www. iedu. psu. ru

http:// www. English language. ru

http:// www. blacksmith__ institute. org