III Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
СЕКРЕТ ПОПУЛЯРНОСТИ ДЖИНСОВ
Просвирнина Д.Ю., Машурчак О.Н.
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Do you know that jeans have their official birthday? This year on 20 May the 143 anniversary of jeans was celebrated throughout the world. Despite their advanced age jeans remain to the main trend in youth fashion.
Jeans are an integral part in wardrobe of modern people. In such clothes you can go to work or to the party. Jeans proved that they are really comfortable clothes, which keep their shapes in all situations.
This topic is actual because jeans are the most popular, accessible and all-purpose types of clothes for many years, despite abundance and wide choice of clothing in a market.
The aim of our research is to find out what a phenomenon 1 of jeans is and whether we need such clothing.
During our research we had to find answers to the following problem questions:
1. Do only teenagers prefer wearing jeans?
2. Is there more practical and comfortable fabric that could replace jeans ones?
3. What is the secret of jeans’ popularity?
The object of our research is denim and other kinds of cotton fabric.
Research methods: searching of information, online survey of Globallab’s participants, analysis of the information and experimental comparison of samples of cotton fabric.
Hypothesis: People prefer wearing jeans regardless of gender or age. The secret of popularity of jeans cause they appeared in the right place at the right time.
1ФЕНОМЕ́Н (феномен ·устар.), феномена, ·муж. (·греч. phainomenon, ·букв. являющееся).
О человеке или явлении, выдающемся, исключительном в каком – ни будь отношении.
Ожегов С.И. Словарь русского языка
1. Origin of the word «jeans».
Before our study we had to find out how and when the word «джинсы» have appeared in the Russian language. In XVI century in Europe the cotton twill (jean) was known, it was a special type of Genoa flannelette. This Russian word formed on the basis of the Americanism «jeans». The word «джинсы» began to use in the Russian language since the mid-XXth century.
1.1. From the history of «JEANS».
The birthplace of jeans is America. But the material from which the first durable and comfortable pants were made was previously used for manufacturing of ship sails and was called "denim". This fabric was produced in Italian city of Genoa.
The creation of jeans, as well as virtually any brilliant invention, accompanied by good fortune. At the time of gold searching boom (The end of the XIX century) Levi Strauss found that the miners needed a special kind of work pants. They must be durable and practical. Levi had never sewed pants by himself, but he often observed how his father did it. In 1853 he founded a trading company called «Levi Strauss & Co» together with his brother. The inventor of new pants began to sew pants for miners from denim, named after French city of de Nimes. On May 20, 1873, Levi Strauss received a patent for the production of working overalls without shoulder straps with 3 pockets for a knife, money and watches. This date is now considered the official birthday of "blue jeans."
Thus, there was a clothing brand that spread around the world. The first jeans cost 1 dollar 46 cents. Later the demand for jeans came from the civilian population. It was the beginning of the era of denim clothes.
1.2. Jeans and youth subcultures.
Fashion paid attention to jeans only at the late 50-s of XX century. Jeans have become one of the most popular things in the wardrobe, and the "denim boom" began.
Denim is the only kind of fabric that immediately and accurately directs our attention towards youth subcultures - cowboys, greaser, hippies and punks - all of them have contributed to jeans clothes.
In the 1950s there was a movement - Greasers. This youth subculture that emerged among street gangs, formed from representatives of the young working class. They wore straight black cotton jeans. The main desire of greasers was stand out from grey crowd of people. Until the emergence of the greasers these casual jeans were actual literal work wear.
This subculture originated in the USA in the 60s of XX century. Exactly Hippies did jeans fashionable. Hippies liked jeans because this material was strong, quite easily washed and stitched. They wore jeans with pleasure decorating them with colored stripes.
Jeans were a common fashion item in the 1960s Hippie subculture and they continued to be popular in the 1970s and 1980s youth subcultures of punk rock and heavy metal. This subculture emerged in the UK, Canada and Australia. The characteristic feature of this subculture was critical attitude to society and politics. Punks wore ripped, frayed jeans with heavy belts and chains from a dog’s leash.
1.3. The Denim boom in Russia.
Jeans in the USSR appeared only in the 80 years of the XX century and immediately became article of luxury and wealth. Not everyone could afford to wear jeans but after ten years all walked in jeans.
At present not only new jeans models and styles but new companies for production of denim clothing appear. Historic brands include “Levi's”, “Lee”, and “Wrangler”.
Of course, new technologies have changed the fabric originally used for the production of jeans by Levi Strauss. But the idea to create a universal model of trousers remained until now. Fashion designers arrange shows of new jeans collections, specialty shops are opened for sale of denim clothing, e.g. «Gloria jeans», «Collin's» and others.
Denim is almost the only fabric which is used not for sewing clothes, shoes and hats but for decoration of school pencil cases, bags, wallets, photo albums, and so on.
2. A practical part. The Survey of the Globallab’s participants.
In order to answer the research questions, the online survey was conducted on the Globallab site. The Globallab is a community of researchers of all ages where everyone can share an idea; create your own research project, to attract like-minded people to collect data throughout the world and to publish the results.
We proposed the idea, created the project on the Globallab site and asked participants to answer some question about denim. The survey involved more than 90 people from different regions of Russia and also different genders and age groups: students under the age of 12 years, teenagers, parents and teachers.
The questionnaire and the results of the research you can find on the side https://globallab.org/ru/project/cover/fenomen_dzhinsov.ru.html#.WP3xphPyj4Y
and also in Appendix 1.
2.1. Features of denim fabric.
To find out the popularity of denim and answer the research question, which could replace denim, we compared several samples of cotton fabric. They are linen, cotton and batiste. All test fabrics are plant origin produced from cotton fibers. Then longer and thinner the cotton fiber then more valuable it is.
Short cotton is processed into fluffy yarn for making flannel, velveteen and other fabrics.
Medium staple cotton is processed into fluffy yarn for making printed cotton, satin, etc.
From fine cotton produce more fine and smooth yarn for high-quality fabrics (batiste).
Of medium staple cotton with the addition of flax or jute is obtained denim.
The analysis of cotton fabrics was held on 7 criteria (Appendix 2).
2. Resistance to temperature
7. Possibility to use clean / wash
Requirements to the base material. The fabric should
We found out that each fabric is good for a certain type of clothing. Flax is good for men's and women's suits, batiste looks good in summer clothing. But all these fabrics have one lack - they are not all-purpose. The results showed that only denim meets all these requirements.
During our research we had to answer all the questions to find out the secret of jeans’ popularity.
Originally created for the needs of the working class jeans are not averse to wear royals, presidents, millionaires and superstars.
Undoubtedly, the negative attitudes towards jeans have been formed during many decades under the influence of their promotion of youth subcultures. Because of this, they were banned in theaters, restaurants and schools or special occasions. It is connected to the attitude of “dress code”.
Nevertheless, jeans called one of the most significant inventions of World fashion. The history of jeans is a great example how the World fashion can be unpredictable and how it has changed due to the invention of a man who came to mind brilliant idea to combine cheap durable fabric, comfortable style and nice color. With help of Levi Strauss jeans are in the wardrobe of each modern person, regardless of gender or age. They say when you do not know what to wear - put on jeans. For jeans forever was fixed term “casual clothes” that means comfortable clothing. We are sure that fact this is the main secret of their success and phenomenon.
1.Ожегов С.И. Словарь русского языка: 7000 слов. Под ред.Н.Ю.Шведовой.-21-е изд., перераб. и доп.— М.,1989 -924с.
2. Орлова Л.В. Азбука моды – М., Просвещение, 1988.
The questionnaire and the results of the research.
The analysis of cotton fabrics.
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