III Международный конкурс
научно-исследовательских и творческих работ учащихся
«СТАРТ В НАУКЕ»
 
     

ЧТО МЫ ЗНАЕМ О СЕВЕРНОЙ ИРЛАНДИИ?
Мохова А.Е., Фадеева Т.Е.
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Introduction

The subject of the research is Northern Ireland. The reasons for taking up this topic are the following: firstly, the personal interest of the author to Northern Ireland, little knowledge of its peculiarities by the author and her schoolmates. Secondly, the study of countries is always interesting giving us an opportunity to travel all over the world and learn about different cultures and ways of life. The third reason is the great desire to find out something very interesting and little known about Northern Ireland and to get a general idea of this wonderful country.

So, the goals of the research are

-to learn what is known about Northern Ireland at my school;

-to find out the most interesting and little known information about Northern Ireland;

-to attract more attention of the schoolmates to the topic of Northern Ireland;

Then, the tasks of the research are

-to study the facts about Northern Ireland turning to different sources of information: students’ books, encyclopedias, authentic travel articles, the Internet resources;

-to analyze and compare the facts found and present to the audience the most interesting and little known information about Northern Ireland;

-to get a general idea of Northern Ireland

The hypothesis is Northern Ireland IS MUCH MORE INTERESTING AND UNIQUETHAN JUST BEING A PART OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

The methods of the research are quizzes, studying the sources of information, comparison and analysis.

2. The body

2.2. The general characteristic of Northern Ireland

2.2.1. Northern Ireland history in brief

Northern Ireland was ruled by Britain for a few hundred years, after a couple of failed rebellions, most notably the 1798 rebellion led by Wolfe Tone, another one was organized for Easter of 1916.

This one went well enough, as far as rebellions go, and the war of independence began. Michel Colins and Eamon De Valera were two leading men in this. In January 1922 a treaty was written up and it gave twenty six counties of Ireland independence, but left six of them in the North a part of England.

A lot of the IRA ( The Old IRA, not the new one) opposed this, and wanted to keep the fighting the British, and the civil war started. This lasted over a year, but proved in-effective for the most part as the North still belonged to the British.

Over the years, people have kept fighting, and the Provisonal IRA have continued to fight the British rule. The height of this was known as the Troubles, and took place from the seventies, eighties, and in the nineties.

In 1981, hunger strikes were held (Bobby Sands for one) most of which took place in the Maze prison.

Sinn Fein was formed soon after.

The first IRA ceasefire came into effect in 1994, was revoked in 1996, and reinstate din 1997, the second ceasefire. The final one came into place in 1998 after the Omagh bombing.

The Belfast Agreement restored parliement to NI, but on the basis of power sharing.

The IRA was completely decommissioned in Spetember 2005, although there is feuds, fights and violence between Cathloics and Protestants, Unionists and Nationalists.. There's also big, big issues about the Orange men's parades.

2.2.2. National Symbols

Coat of Arms: The coat of arms shown above is NOT the coat of arms of Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland does not have an official coat of arms. The image shown above is of a historical coat of arms used from 1924 to 1972.

Flower: The shamrock (a three-leafed clover) is a popular way to represent Saint Patrick's Day.

The poppy is a symbol across Europe for the loss of life in the World Wars. Poppies grew in the fields of Flanders after WW1. The Red symbolizes the blood spilt. The Poppy has a strong meaning of commemoration for many people in the UK. Many lost ancestors in the world wars. The Red Hand has represented the province of Ulster since the time of the Gaelic aristocracy. It is used by both Nationalists and Unionists – the difference being that Nationalists count 9 counties in Ulster, while Unionists tend to use the word 'Ulster' to describe the 6 counties of Northern Ireland.

The red hand comes from a legend that two chieftains had a race to decide who was lord of Ulster. O'Neill seeing that he was falling behind, cut off his hand and threw it to the shore, claiming lordship of Ulster. In more recent times the red hand has become identified with loyalist paramilitaries during the Troubles - it still tends to be seen more as a Protestant symbol.

The Easter Lily commemorates the Easter Rising of 1916. Easter 1916 is a controversial event in the history of Ireland, but there is no doubt it altered the course of history on the island.

Leprechaun. The Emerald Isle has its own folklore personage – a leprechaun – a little man (gnome) in green coat and hat who always does mischief and has a hidden pot of gold. Being caught by a man he offers him three wishes to go free. His image is widely used for tourist and television industries.

The Irish harp or the Gaelic harp has a very long history being a symbol of Ireland. The legends say about magical powers of this instrument (they say it reflects the immortality of the soul) and its first usage by King David as his badge. The harpists were highly trained and regarded professionals who performed their masterpieces for the nobility as it was very difficult to learn how to play this instrument. The harp has been used on Guinness labels since 1876. It also figures in various mythology stories.

2.2.3. Geographical position. The capital. Population

Northern Ireland is the smallest component of the United Kingdom. It occupies the northeast of the island of Ireland, only one-sixth of its territory. Northern Ireland contains six of the nine counties of the historic province of Ulster and that’s why the name ‘Ulster’ is sometimes used as equivalent to Northern Ireland. Its capital city is Belfast.

Population

The population of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is nearly 59 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. The distribution of the population is rather uneven. Over 48.8 million people live in England, over 3 million in Northern Ireland, a little over 5 million in Scotland and about 1.5 million in Northern Ireland.

Greater London, the south and the southeast are the most densely populated areas. London’s population is nearly 7 million. Most of the mountainous parts of the UK including much of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland and the Pennine Chain in northern England are very sparsely populated.

The UK is inhabited by the English, the Scots, the Welsh, and the Irish who constitute the British nation. The British are the descendants of different peoples who settled in the British Isles at different times. The earliest known people of Britain were of Iberian origin. Then followed a long succession of invaders including the Celts, the Romans, the Anglo-Saxons, the Danes and at last in1066 the Normans. It was the last time Britain was invaded.

2.2.4. Economy. Key industries

Traditionally the economy of Northern Ireland depended upon three activities – farming, shipbuilding and the manufacture of textiles. Each of these industries has faced serious problems which have produced striking changes in them.

In 1950 nearly one quarter of the total labour force was employed in farming. In the 1980s that figure was nine per cent - a loss of more than ninety thousand jobs. Such a large reduction has contributed to major chang­es in the pattern of farming. Farms in Northern Ireland are generally very small and cannot keep even the farmer in full time work. So, many left the land, while the average size of farms has increased. A reduction in the number of farm workers has been compensated by the greater use of tractors and other machinery by the richer farmers.

The textile industry of Northern Ireland came to depend almost entire­ly on linen which was made from flax grown in the province. The industry started as a cottage industry, scattered throughout the region wherever flax and soft water were available. It was not until the nineteenth century that the first large mills were built and then the Belfast region began to emerge as the main centre of production. But production of flax and its preparation needed a great deal of costly manual labour, and the farmers gave up its cultivation. Now the flax is imported, chiefly from Belgium and the linen industry survives mainly as a craft industry producing specialized luxury goods, on a very small scale.

Man-made fibres have taken the place of the linen industry. Northern Ireland, in fact, has one of the largest concentrations of man-made fibre production in Western Europe, which is in the hands of big international firms. This industry was experiencing decline and the labour force was re­duced by a half in the 1980s. Textile manufacture is concentrated in Belfast and in several smaller towns nearby. An associated industry is the manu­facture of clothing and footwear. Londonderry, the second major town in Northern Ireland, specializes in the manufacture of shirts.

The engineering industry of Northern Ireland has been dominated by shipbuilding. During the nineteenth century it grew very rapidly. With the introduction of iron ships, the industry was forced to import from Britain most of its raw materials, including coal, iron and steel. The industry became centred on the shores of Belfast Lough. The twentieth century has seen the continuation of this process and, by 1950, there was one large shipbuilding concern in Northern Ireland - Harland and Wolff - which employed some 20,000 men and produced ten per cent of the total British output.

The aircraft industry is located in the Belfast area. The industry has difficulties in competing with the large aircraft corporations in Britain and abroad. Today it depends largely on government contracts for military air­craft. The industry is represented by the Short Brothers firm. Attempts have been made to attract new industries. Meat packing and food processing were expanded on the basis of increased meat production. Electronics, elec­trical engineering and the chemical industry also developed, mainly in the east near Belfast. The new industries are less developed in the more remote areas of the south and west.

2. What are the main industrial areas and their specialization?

Belfast (303,800), situated at the mouth of the river Lagan, on the shores of Belfast Lough, is the main administrative, economic and cultural centre of Northern Ireland. Besides being a major centre of textile manufacture, shipbuilding, aircraft production, electrical engineering and food processing, it also handles most of the overseas trade of Northern Ireland.

Londonderry (63,000) has the second largest population. Besides its textile and clothing industries, flour milling and bacon curing are also devel­oping. ‘Derry’ is also a market centre. North of Belfast is the small port, seaside resort and market town of Larne, which has a regular ferry service to Scotland. Bangor, on the south side of Belfast Lough near its mouth, is the largest seaside resort in Northern Ireland, popular with Belfast people.

Northern Ireland's economy has brought its people a standard of living well above that of the Republic, but lower than Great Britain's. With the decline of shipbuilding there is now serious unemployment, and vast sums have been spent by UK governments in attempts to improve the situation.

2.2.5 Traditional meal

A popular dish is the assortment of fried food, called the "Ulster Fry". It consists of eggs, bacon, sausages, potato bread and soda bread. Some versions include tomatoes, mushrooms or baked beans. Fry's are generally prepared as the name suggests: everything is fried in a pan. Traditionally lard was used, but recently due to health concerns, it has been replaced with oils such as canola and olive. Historically, it was popular with the working class.

Another popular dish is 'bangers and mash'. It is sausages and 'champ'(see below)The name comes from the fact that during World War II rationing sausages had a lot of water in them and so they exploded when they were fried.

Some shops on the north coast close to Ballycastle, sell a local delicacy called dulse. This is a certain type of seaweed, usually collected, washed and Sun-dried from the middle of Summer through to the middle of Autumn. Additionally, in August, the lamas fair is held in Ballycastle, and a traditional sweet, called "yellow man" is sold in huge quantities. As you can tell from the name, it's yellow in colour, it's also very sweet, and can get quite sticky. If you can, try to sample some yellow man, just make sure you have use of a toothbrush shortly after eating it... it'll rot your teeth!

The cuisine in Northern Ireland is similar to that in the United Kingdom as a whole, with dishes such as Fish and Chips a popular fast food choice. Local dishes such as various types of stew and potato-based foods are also very popular. 'Champ' is a local speciality consisting of creamed potatoes with spring onions ('scallions') mixed in.

It should be noted that, with the advent of the peace process and (until recently) the improvements in economic conditions for many people in Northern Ireland, there has been a great increase in the number of very good restaurants, especially in the larger towns such as Belfast and Derry. Indeed it would be difficult for a visitor to either of those cities not to find a fine-dining establishment to suit their tastes (and wallet).

There is a strong emphasis on local produce. Locally produced meats, cheeses and drinks can be found in any supermarket. For the real Northern Irish experience, sample Tayto brand cheese and onion flavoured crisps - these are nothing short of being a local icon and are available everywhere.

2.2.6.Language

Nearly everyone in Northern Ireland speaks English. A small number of people speak Irish Gaelic, an old Celtic language which is very different from English. The other regional language is Ulster Scots, a variation of English which is spoken in Northern Ireland and is similar to Scots spoken in Scotland.

2.2.7. Music

You can hear all types of music in Northern Ireland including traditional Irish music, jazz, rock or pop. In summer Belfast has music festivals like ‘Belsonic’ and ‘Tennents Vital’. Many international artists play at these festivals, including bands from Northern Ireland like ‘Snow Patrol’, ‘Ash’ and ‘Two door cinema club’.

2.2.8.Sport

Northern Ireland is a popular place to go walking or do outdoor activities such as mountain biking, coasteering (climbing up rocks and jumping into the sea) or zorbing (rolling down a hill in a giant PVC ball). Football, rugby, cricket, Gaelic football and hurling, a type of hockey, are all popular in Northern Ireland. Gaelic football is similar to rugby because players can touch and kick the ball. For most sports, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland join together in the same team when they play in international competitions. However, football is different and Northern Ireland has its own football league. Some players from Northern Ireland play for teams in the English or Scottish leagues.

Field sports

Association football

George Best, Northern Irish international footballer and 1968 Ballon d'Or

The Irish Football Association (IFA) serves as the organising body for association football in Northern Ireland, with the Northern Ireland Football League (NIFL) responsible for the independent administration of the three divisions of national domestic football, as well as the Northern Ireland Football League Cup.

The highest level of competition within Northern Ireland is the NIFL Premiership, with the NIFL Championship below.With Northern Irelands internationals mainly playing in England and Scotland or further a field.

NIFL clubs are semi-professional or Intermediate.NIFL Premiership clubs are also eligible to compete in the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League with the league champions entering the Champions league second qualifying round and the 2nd placed league finisher,the European play-off winners and the Irish Cup winners entering the Europa League second qualifying round. No clubs have ever reached the group stage.

Despite Northern Ireland's small population, the national team qualified for the World Cup in 1958, 1982 and 1986, making it to the quarter-finals in 1958 and 1982 and made it the first knockout round in the European Championships in 2016.

Rugby union

The six counties of Northern Ireland are among the nine governed by the Ulster branch of the Irish Rugby Football Union, the governing body of rugby union in Ireland. Ulster is one of the four professional provincial teams in Ireland and competes in the Celtic League and European Cup. It won the European Cup in 1999.

In international competitions, the Ireland national rugby union team's recent successes include four Triple Crowns between 2004 and 2009 and a Grand Slam in 2009 in the Six Nations Championship.

Cricket

The Ireland cricket team is an associate member of the International Cricket Council. It participated in 2007 Cricket World Cup and qualified for the Super 8s and did the same in the 2009 ICC World Twenty20.

Ireland are current champions of ICC Intercontinental Cup. One of Ireland's regular international venues is Stormont in Belfast.

Gaelic games

Gaelic games include Gaelic football, hurling (and camogie), handball and rounders. Of the four, football is the most popular in Northern Ireland. Players play for local clubs with the best being selected for their county teams. The Ulster GAA is the branch of the Gaelic Athletic Association that is responsible for the nine counties of Ulster, which include the six of Northern Ireland.

These nine county teams participate in the Ulster Senior Football Championship, Ulster Senior Hurling Championship, All-Ireland Senior Football Championship and All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. Recent successes for Northern Ireland teams include Armagh's 2002 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship win and Tyrone's wins in 2003, 2005 and 2008.

Golf

Prominent Northern Irish golfer Rory McIlroy

Perhaps Northern Ireland's most notable successes in professional sport have come in golf. Northern Ireland has contributed more major champions in the modern era than any other European country, with three in the space of just 14 months from the US Open in 2010 to The Open Championship in 2011. Notable golfers include Fred Daly (winner of The Open in 1947), Ryder Cup players Ronan Rafferty and David Feherty, leading European Tour professionals David Jones, Michael Hoey (a winner on Tour in 2011) and Gareth Maybin, as well as three recent major winners Graeme McDowell (winner of the US Open in 2010, the first European to do so since 1970), Rory McIlroy (winner of four majors) and Darren Clarke (winner of The Open in 2011). Northern Ireland has also contributed several players to the Great Britain and Ireland Walker Cup team, including Alan Dunbar and Paul Cutler who played on the victorious 2011 team in Scotland.

The Golfing Union of Ireland, the governing body for men's and boy's amateur golf throughout Ireland and the oldest golfing union in the world, was founded in Belfast in 1891. Northern Ireland's golf courses include the Royal Belfast Golf Club (the earliest, formed in 1881), Royal Portrush Golf Club, which is the only course outside Great Britain to have hosted The Open Championship, and Royal County Down Golf Club (Golf Digest magazine's top-rated course outside the United States).

Snooker

Northern Ireland has produced two world snooker champions; Alex Higgins, who won the title in 1972 and 1982, and Dennis Taylor, who won in 1985. The highest-ranked Northern Ireland professional on the world circuit presently is Mark Allen from Antrim. The sport is governed locally by the Northern Ireland Billiards and Snooker Association who run regular ranking tournaments and competitions.

Motor sports

Although Northern Ireland lacks an international automobile racecourse, two Northern Irish drivers have finished inside the top two of Formula One, with John Watson achieving the feat in 1982 and Eddie Irvine doing the same in 1999. The largest course and the only MSA-licensed track for UK-wide competition is Kirkistown.

Rugby league

The Ireland national rugby league team has participated in the Emerging Nations Tournament (1995), the Super League World Nines (1996), the World Cup (2000 and 2008), European Nations Cup (since 2003) and Victory Cup (2004).

The Ireland A rugby league team compete annually in the Amateur Four Nations competition (since 2002) and the St Patrick's Day Challenge (since 1995).

Professional wrestling

In 2007, after the closure of UCW (Ulster Championship Wrestling) which was a wrestling promotion, PWU formed, standing for Pro Wrestling Ulster. The wrestling promotion features championships, former WWE superstars and local independent wrestlers. Events and IPPV's throughout Northern Ireland

2.2.9 Folklore

The Leprechaun figures large in Irish folklore. A mischievous fairy type creature in emerald green clothing who when not playing tricks spend all their time busily making shoes, the Leprechaun is said to have a pot of gold hidden at the end of the rainbow, and if ever captured by a human it has the magical power to grant three wishes in exchange for release.[7] The stories of Fionn mac Cumhaill and his followers, the Fianna, form the Fenian cycle. Legend has it he built the Giant's Causeway as stepping-stones to Scotland, so as not to get his feet wet; he also once scooped up part of Ireland to fling it at a rival, but it missed and landed in the Irish Sea — the clump became the Isle of Man and the pebble became Rockall, the void became Lough Neagh. The Irish king Brian Boru who ended the domination of the so-called High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill, is part of the historical cycle. The Irish princess Iseult is the adulterous lover of Tristan in the Arthurian romance and tragedy Tristan and Iseult.

2.2.10 Literature and the arts

For a comparatively small country, Ireland has made a disproportionate contribution to world literature in all its branches, in both the Irish and English languages. The island's most widely-known literary works are undoubtedly in English. Particularly famous examples of such works are those of James Joyce, Bram Stoker, Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde and Ireland's four winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature; William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett and Seamus Heaney. Three of the four Nobel prize winners were born in Dublin (Heaney being the exception, having lived in Dublin but being born in County Londonderry), making it the birthplace of more Nobel literary laureates than any other city in the world.[16] The Irish language has the third oldest literature in Europe (after Greek and Latin),[17] the most significant body of written literature (both ancient and recent) of any Celtic language, as well as a strong oral tradition of legends and poetry. Poetry in Irish represents the oldest vernacular poetry in Europe, with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century.

George Bernard Shaw, one of four Irish winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature

The early history of Irish visual art is generally considered to begin with early carvings found at sites such as Newgrange and is traced through Bronze age artefacts, particularly ornamental gold objects, and the Celtic brooches and illuminated manuscripts of the "Insular" Early Medieval period. During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, a strong indigenous tradition of painting emerged, including such figures as John Butler Yeats, William Orpen, Jack Yeats and Louis le Brocquy.

The Irish tradition of folk music and dance is also widely known. In the middle years of the 20th century, as Irish society was attempting to modernise, traditional Irish music fell out of favour to some extent, especially in urban areas. Young people at this time tended to look to Britain and, particularly, the United States as models of progress and jazz and rock and roll became extremely popular. During the 1960s, and inspired by the American folk music movement, there was a revival of interest in the Irish tradition. This revival was inspired by groups like The Dubliners, the Clancy Brothers and Sweeney's Men and individuals like Seán Ó Riada.

Before long, groups and musicians like Horslips, Van Morrison and even Thin Lizzy were incorporating elements of traditional music into a rock idiom to form a unique new sound. During the 1970s and 1980s, the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred, with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing as a matter of course. This trend can be seen more recently in the work of bands like U2, Snow Patrol, The Cranberries and The Corrs.

2.2.11.Customs and traditions

In general, Irish people are very friendly, honest and easily treated which you will not have problem with them in terms of being friends. They are party lovers too and enjoy a lot to be with their families and friends. Foreigners are treated well in pubs and restaurants and you will surprise of the good mood which they present in the daily life making jokes every moment. They are good speakers doing the conversations longer than normal. Spite of these good characteristic, we do not have to forget that they have traditional customs, a classical thinking and they are people with great principles. These principles and classical thinking reflect how they are in social and business situations which we must to maintain a good composture and customs in front of them.

Greetings are warm like their personalities. For some people is a bit shocked that Irish people greet them with expressions like “How are you?” without to know the other. They have their traditional greeting “Céad míle fáilte” which means “a hundred thousand welcomes”. However, they use English expressions like “Hello” and “How are you?” The Irish greeting more common is “Dia dhuit” (God be with you) and to say good bye they use “Slán” (Go safe). Together with all these different types of greeting, Irish people handshakes strongly and kiss in the cheek to the women showing confidence each other.

St Patricks Day Traditions

March 17th marks the day of St Patrick, celebrated by millions of people around the world. In Ireland, St Patricks Day was always held as an important religious day to celebrate the teachings of Christianity by St Patrick.

Easter Sunday in Ireland

Many family house holds would prepare their homes for Easter Sunday by doing what would be better known as spring cleaning to prepare the house for blessing by the local priest which is a religious ceremony that dates back hundreds of years. Halloween Traditions in Ireland

Today Halloween is celebrated all around the globe but the Halloween Holiday has its history firmly planted in Ireland. Halloween is also known as Samhain, All Hallows Eve, Hallowmas and Hallowtide. It is celebrated on 31st October but the holiday of Halloween is not just celebrated on the one day any more as the Christian holidays of All Saints Day, November 1st and All Souls Day, November 2nd are celebrated as well.

Celebrating Christmas in Ireland

Most, if not all, Irish families decorate their homes with lights, tinsel and baubles. A Christmas tree is usually erected in the family home on the first day of the holy advent calendar. The tree will be beautifully decorated with an angel on top, presents will lay underneath as seen with many family homes around the world.

3. Practical part

Taking up the research we started with choosing the subject of the research, then defining the topic. Having chosen the subject we defined the goals of the research. The main goals are to find out the knowledge of Northern Ireland topic at the secondary school of Novouralsk and the most rare and interesting information about Northern Ireland.

3.1. The students’ results of the quiz

We made up a quiz of 10 questions (with multiple choice) and tested the students of secondary school number 48 in Novouralsk. The amount of students studying in the 9th-11th forms is 65. The results of the answers can be seen in the following diagram:

Questions 1,3,5,9 concern some general information about Northern Ireland. These facts are usually taught at the English lessons. That is why most of the students of our school managed to answer them correctly. Questions 4,2,6,7,8,10 deal with some more peculiar information. The students’ results of the quiz on Northern Ireland pointed out that Northern Ireland is well-known as a part of the UK. The students know quiet well some very general facts about Northern Ireland . But as it has been awaited, they do not know some peculiarities and historic background of some events.

So, it’s clear that Northern Ireland is just known in general or as a part of the UK, few people know its special national characteristics or something making Northern Ireland different from other countries.

4. Conclusion

We can come to conclusion that Northern Ireland is little known and spoken about at our school. But our research and a great amount of the found interesting information have proved that Northern Ireland is much more interesting country for studying and visiting than we may think.

5. References

  1. "Northern Ireland Census 2011 Output". NISRAcensus/. 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2013.

  2. "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics. Office for National Statistics (United Kingdom). Retrieved 7 July 2015.

  3. "Population Clock Northern Ireland (an assumption of population change after 30 June 2014)". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Retrieved 4 December 2015.

  4. "Northern Ireland". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 October 2015.

  5. Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Government of Ireland (1998), Northern Ireland Peace Agreement (The Good Friday Agreement)

  6. "Standing up for Northern Ireland". Ulster Unionist Party. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2008.

  7. Department of Enterprise, Trade, and Investment: Full Economic Overview, 15 October 2014Archived 7 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine.

  8. "Bank holidays". Archived from the original on 22 November 2010.

  9. "The Countries of the UK". Beginners' Guide to UK Geography. UK Statistics Authority. 11 November 2005. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. The top-level division of administrative geography in the UK is the 4 countries—England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Northern Ireland.

  10. "The Population of Northern Ireland". Northern Ireland Statistical Research Agency. Retrieved 11